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Archive for November, 2016

A friend recently shared Atlas Obscura’s post on Hollow Earth theories. At once fun (because it is always entertaining to look at the crazy stuff folks once thunk, plus it’s a neat setting for fantastical tales) and terrifying (given that there aren’t only the flat-earthers and young-earthers out there [confession: I was one of the latter for a period as a child], but also the hollow-earthers). The article mentions Dante’s Inferno as a potential first-visualization of such an idea (I believe the genealogy of the idea has been traced back further, but hey, not my specialty), stops briefly at Halley, then skips on to 19th century pseudo-science, before getting into science fiction from Jules Verne onwards–which completely misses my favorite hollow earth story, Niels Klim’s Journey Under the Ground (links to various digital transcriptions of the English translation here).  I’ve taught Niels Klim at least 4 times now, in various incarnations of my “Scandinavian Other Worlds” course (somewhat an overview of the history of Scandinavian literature, somewhat an exploration of different variations of the theme “Other Worlds”), though I am not an early-modernist (I’m a [Scandinavian] medievalist first, maybe a Scandi folklorist after that, then a general Scandinavianist), so the info provided below is brief and just a matter of a few things I found helpful/interesting/insightful when teaching it.

Image from Wikipedia

The story, from the same period as Gulliver’s Travels and clearly influenced by the same (though I’ve heard one person suggest it might go the other way, positing a very early Holbergian draft…) follows upwardly-mobile Niels Klim, who, on attempting to explore a mysterious cave in the mountains (and Scandinavian legend tradition re: underground populations of “under-earthers” is a relevant echo here, even if the story here opts for a very different direction), falls deep into the earth, emerging into the center of the earth, which consists of three parts–the lands on the firmament (the underside of the crust), a mini-sun in the middle, and a small planet (later we learn it is called Nazar) circling that sun. Niels is brought to the surface of the planet by a giant eagle, and there meets the inhabitants, who are sentient trees.

The larger narrative can be divided up geographically to a degree, and while Holberg’s point with the whole, apart from, well, entertainment, is fairly polemical, his strategies for his polemicizing shift from utopian to satirical with each location/section–though I suppose both elements are active here and there throughout: utopian in Holberg’s visions of social perfection, satirical in his biting commentary on contemporary Denmark and Europe.

Potuan Maiden by Callego

Haven’t consulted the text in a while, so no promises this is an accurate depiction–but hey, close enough to an illustrious many-branched Potuan maiden.

First we have Niels’ initial stay in Potu, a country on the planet Nazar. This is an explicitly Utopian portion of the narrative, as may be clear from the name (Potu is derived from Utop[ia] in reverse–also, apart from this name, the language of the Potuans might be considered an early conlang, though I don’t know whether it was a serious enough construction to really be labeled such…). We get a first glimpse here of Niels’ role as buffoon, a role Holberg would use in his comedic plays as well–a particular characteristic would be taken to extremes in a buffoonish character, or such a character would seek to live outside his proper place and abilities, and so would be exposed to ridicule, such that the audience could point and laugh and say “Oh, OK, that is definitely not the right way to do things, is it…” (so not satire on specific real-world people or institutions, but on generally attitudes, behaviors, etc), but here this is primarily in terms of Niels as European foil to this logical and perfect society of intelligent trees. Examples of the perfection of the Potuans: no arguing allowed over religious points, and the religious outlook is vaguely Deist (so no Catholics and Protestants burning each other); apart from a hereditary ruler (this is the age of Absolute Monarchy and Villainous Aristocrats, after all) all jobs are assigned according to who can best do them (instead of matching the prestige of the job with the prestige of the person); as a development of the latter point, we get a pretty gender-progressive stance from Holberg (not Klim, alas) as the Potuans think it ridiculous to exclude women from, for example, prestigious government posts, so long as a given woman is most suited to that particular job; and introducing any change to society must be brought to the learned to consider, and if rejected the innovator will be executed–so that people will only offer an innovation if they are really very certain about it. Careful thought and consideration is the name of the game here, and Niels Klim is too hasty to even listen to the rules, and from the start the Potuans pity him, and he bridles under his reduced estate (ie, no longer so upwardly mobile–hm, maybe this subterranean position has a figurative connection to his career…). This brings us to the next section…

Unhappy with his humble position as courier (since, not being a tree, he can move quite fast), he convinces the king to let him go on a journey around the planet, surveying the other societies there. Here we might say we’ve gone Dystopian, though perhaps it is better to understand it as more satirical education via buffoonery, just projected on to the level of entire nations. Each place he visits has one particular thing taken to extremes (again, in true buffoon fashion, contradicting the Golden Mean)–a place where women are not just equal, but in fact in charge (which nicely illustrates how lame it is to actually be a woman in a patriarchal society); a place where everyone is a philosopher; a place where people live too long; a place where people know when they will die; etc. And of course, while many of these might be taken to derive from some vision of perfection (“wouldn’t it be nice if everyone…”), put into practice we see that nothing taken to extremes is good. So there!

This ends with him returning to Potu, but he is still unhappy–so he decides he will make a name for himself by introducing an innovation! Sure, it means risking his life, but a clever, upwardly mobile Norwegian boy like himself (OK, my blog title says Danish, but Norway was under Denmark at the time, so whatever) should have no trouble, right? So he suggests that women not be allowed to hold office. Well, it doesn’t go well, but because he is a stupid foreigner (not in so many words, but that is essentially it) they decide to exile him to the firmament instead–the inside surface of the earth’s crust. This is done using eagles of the sort that initially brought him.

Image from Wikipedia

On the surface we can still detect some dystopian elements and buffoon-at-the-level-of-nations polemicizing, but to a large degree this is where we finally actually start getting a narrative interesting in its own right, moving into adventure mode, and later into conquering hero mode–but all still very much a parody, and involving countries of apes, of tigers, of horses, and other animals, and of very primitive humans, along with our hero going from clever courtier to galley slave to “Yankee In King Arthur’s Court”-style antics that make him a celebrated, and then cruel, and, frankly, stupid conqueror and emperor. And OK, we do get one more intriguing bit of explicit satirical commentary as Klim discovers a manuscript from an subterranean explorer who went up to explore the surface–there are of course many details relevant to that period in European history (it is targeted satire, of course), but it essentially comes down to “Holy crap, those Europeans–smh.”

Klim screws up and has to run (spoiler alert), and ends up getting blown by a wind back up through the hole he fell into–on exiting he is mistaken for the wandering Jew (another bit of folklore to add to the “underearthers” reference), but ends up finally being taken care of by an old acquaintance, who helps him get a minor position–but of course he will forever remember that he was once a magnificent ruler and has a queen and princely children somewhere in the earth below, and the story itself is framed by a preface purporting to answer the ridicule of those who say it is all, pardon my language, balderdash (not a Danish/Norwegian word, btw). I tend to assume this was all tongue-in-cheek and that no one was going to be mistaking this for anything but a polemical flight of fancy, but hey, not a period I usually work with.

Like the Atlas Obscura article points out, the Hollow Earth idea has been around a long time. Wikipedia seems to have a good summary (and actually mentions Holberg), but if I remember correctly, this edition/translation has a good introduction covering not only Holberg, and not only the story’s place in the Hollow Earth tradition, but in literary history more generally. Alas, it is not in print any more, and the used paper back versions are a bit pricey. 😦 But again, feel free to read it for free online!

[EDIT: Holy crap, to think that only days after I published this that whole election thing happened. I’ve got to say, our president elect seems to have stepped right out of a Holbergian satire. Klim-as-buffoon ranges from relatively harmless ridiculousness as he gets himself exiled for his attempt to capitalize on his ostensibly ingenious misogynistic policy recommendation to very harmful (=world war level) ridiculousness as this very small-minded and entitled man pushes the martial, imperial, and colonial programs of Europe to extremes in the subterranean world after managing to displace an emperor–and when he himself is displaced from his ill-gotten throne he is full of his tragic downfall, oblivious to his role as hyperbolic object lesson. I’m tempted to get into political cartooning… but I suppose a centuries-old Danish utopian satire is not going to be the most accessible allusion for US politics…]

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tree_and_lake_in_autumn_by_callego-d9cx3lo

One of my 2015 Inktober illustrations

I’ve participated, in a weak way, in previous Inktobers, but this was the first time I managed to post something every day of the month, even if I didn’t follow the official list. A few of my pics have been turned up in my other blog posts, but I thought I would just lay out every one of them here, since they are a bit difficult to search through on my tumblr and I didn’t post all of them on DeviantArt. Most of the art I’ve done the past 2 1/2 years has been pen bush sketches, and there are some bits from this month I really don’t like, and no pics I’m entirely satisfied with, but I definitely feel like this month has helped a lot–I don’t know how visible the improvements are to everyone else, but I feel like I know what I’m doing a lot more, and have a better sense for my own particular style.

For the most part these are 1) sketches pertaining to my potential webcomic that I’m playing with, 2) other fantasy/saga/folktale/science fiction pics that are a bit more developed, even if nothing here is polished enough that I’ll be posting it in my store without cleaning it up digitally, and 3) super quick sketches/doodles to make sure I had something for that day. Regarding the latter, this past weekend I was at a conference and could only post doodles from the margins of my conference notes, but I did end up with some extras, so there will be more than 31 pics below. Clicking a pic should link you to one of my original posts either on tumblr or deviantart.

And of course, now that Inktober is over NaNoWriMo is here and I will be cheating by resuming my novel from last year–so we’ll see if I’m as consistent with that as I was with my art…

All that said: Enjoy! 🙂

Very quick set of Inktober sketches for today. Hoping to return to karate after…. um, over a decade, so I guess that was on my mind. Realized afterwards I set her belt way too low (looks like she has a long torso and short legs…), and I don’t think I...

Inktober day 5. Having trouble getting into it today, but I think that’s because I’m more comfortable with characters in landscapes than straight-up character design–or maybe bears are just tough for me, I don’t know. Anyway, it became more just...

Inktober day 6. Super hurried, as I’ve had a full day. Fortunately I’d invented my new patented scribble tree technique, illustrated on the left, while doodling during a course from my health provider just an hour before, so I threw together this 2-4...

Inktober day 9–stomach has been giving me a ton of pain last night and now again tonight (I’ve got a lot of gastro issues…), so this grimace was all I had the wherewithal for. Hm, and I was maybe a bit more generous with my hairline than real-life...

Inktober day 10–another super quick sketch. Stomach still killing me, so nothing polished. Ouch…

Inktober day 11. Super quick profiles. Still not feeling great so very little energy for creating or thinking. :(

Inktober day 13. Too tired for much, but scribbled a different design idea for the mc of my potential comic. I don’t think I’ll actually do the giant jet pack look tho. Away from my scanner, so just a crappy tablet pic this time. Really would like to...

Inktober day 16. Another sloppy-quick sketch. What if I had to work the same way that the scribes whose work I am working on worked? Hm, say that fast five times…
Hopefully will have a more thought-through and polished piece tomorrow. Somehow have to...

Inktober day 17 oh my goodness working so late on this paper but I wanted to get this in and now I need to see if I can submit a poem before the deadline for this magazine closes  (never mind, too last minute and technically that poem is already...

Inktober day 23- very quick sketch after reading a short story by Murakami.

Inktober day 26–up late super stressed about this paper I’m going to present soon, so this is pretty hasty. Some vikings, and a big headed viking guy. Seriously, I don’t know why I drew the torso facing forward, the pose makes his head huge and his...

Inktober day 27–argh, no time for this. Scribbled something out with my MCs for the webcomic idea, but no time to refine or fix anything. I know, bear looks like he is in pieces. Back to scholarizing for me. Hope I will find time for something more...

Inktober day 28. Just a quick scribble as I am scrambling to finish everything before I get together with the other presenters tonight. Then I give a response and a paper tomorrow, and Sunday can relax and just listen to other people’s papers. 🙂 Yay...

Inktober day 29! I did some sketches in my notes, but can apparently not post them all at once with the browser on my phone, so more to follow.

Another conference doodle. But no, doesn’t actually represent Matt’s Bertell, just ended up near his name…

And another conference doodle

Inktober day 30. Again from my doodling during this weekend conference. Will post a few more of today’s doodles shortly.

Another doodle from the conference.

Another conference doodle.

Another conference doodle. I promise I paid attention to everyone’s papers…

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